Levels of Development?

In the 1970s, Catholic theology students were taught the Enneagram in Chicago by Father Bob Ochs, S.J.. Ochs changed the Enneagram to suit his theological purpose of integrating the Enneagram with the teachings of St Ignatius Loyola. In doing so, Ochs radically changed the Enneagram and fundamentally altered its diagnostic purpose.


Further, the lines on the Enneagram indicating stress and security points became lines of integration and disintegration. In other words, the system which provided no judgment upon the environmentally induced behaviour of people was suddenly dragooned into the service of Catholic sin and redemption.

Unfortunately, the Enneagram, like many great spiritual systems, has been utilised by writers for themes and frameworks which can be misapplied in any number of ways. The stress and security error perpetrated by the Jesuits in Chicago is such a fallacy. A number of writers are infected by this error, and almost all of those who can trace their teaching back to Bob Ochs appear to perpetuate this error.

The Levels of Development are a recent addition to the ancient Enneagram framework. While the Levels of Development are interesting and indeed, some people find them useful, they are scientifically un-validated and highly speculative.

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